Making WordPress.org

Changeset 6948


Ignore:
Timestamp:
03/28/2018 02:32:04 AM (6 years ago)
Author:
dd32
Message:

Main: About/Security: Make the security page translatable.

The contents of this page is https://github.com/WordPress/Security-White-Paper so some translations are over there already, but will need importing manually.

See #3046.

File:
1 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • sites/trunk/wordpress.org/public_html/wp-content/themes/pub/wporg-main/page-about-security.php

    r6923 r6948  
    2929// See inc/page-meta-descriptions.php for the meta description for this page.
    3030
    31 // Translation Note: Currently this is translated through https://github.com/WordPress/Security-White-Paper
     31/*
     32 * The contents of this page was last sync'd to the following commit:
     33 * https://github.com/WordPress/Security-White-Paper/commit/e805a609d3dc37aae03ed3da2262fe2d33849c53
     34 */
    3235
    3336get_header( 'child-page' );
     
    4447            <div class="entry-content row">
    4548                <section class="col-8">
    46                     <p>Learn more about WordPress core software security in this free white paper. You can also download it in <a href="https://github.com/WordPress/Security-White-Paper/blob/master/WordPressSecurityWhitePaper.pdf?raw=true">PDF format</a>.</p>
     49                    <p><?php
     50                        printf(
     51                            /* translators: %s: URL to English PDF */
     52                            __( 'Learn more about WordPress core software security in this free white paper. You can also download it in <a href="%s">PDF format</a>.', 'wporg' ),
     53                            'https://github.com/WordPress/Security-White-Paper/blob/master/WordPressSecurityWhitePaper.pdf?raw=true'
     54                        );
     55                    ?></p>
    4756
    4857                    <img src="//s.w.org/about/images/logos/wordpress-logo-stacked-rgb.png" class="aligncenter" />
    4958
    50                     <h2>Overview</h2>
    51 
    52                     <p>This document is an analysis and explanation of the WordPress core software development and its related security processes, as well as an examination of the inherent security built directly into the software. Decision makers evaluating WordPress as a content management system or web application framework should use this document in their analysis and decision-making, and for developers to refer to it to familiarize themselves with the security components and best practices of the software.</p>
    53 
    54                     <p>The information in this document is up-to-date for the latest stable release of the software, WordPress 4.7 at time of publication, but should be considered relevant also to the most recent versions of the software as backwards compatibility is a strong focus for the WordPress development team. Specific security measures and changes will be noted as they have been added to the core software in specific releases. It is strongly encouraged to always be running the latest stable version of WordPress to ensure the most secure experience possible.</p>
    55                     <h2>Executive Summary</h2>
    56                     <p>WordPress is a dynamic open-source content management system which is used to power millions of websites, web applications, and blogs. It currently powers more than 27% of the top 10 million websites on the Internet. WordPress' usability, extensibility, and mature development community make it a popular and secure choice for websites of all sizes.</p>
    57 
    58                     <p>Since its inception in 2003, WordPress has undergone continual hardening so its core software can address and mitigate common security threats, including the Top 10 list identified by The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) as common security vulnerabilities, which are discussed in this document.</p>
    59 
    60                     <p>The WordPress Security Team, in collaboration with the WordPress Core Leadership Team and backed by the WordPress global community, works to identify and resolve security issues in the core software available for distribution and installation at WordPress.org, as well as recommending and documenting security best practices for third-party plugin and theme authors.</p>
    61 
    62                     <p>Site developers and administrators should pay particular attention to the correct use of core APIs and underlying server configuration which have been the source of common vulnerabilities, as well as ensuring all users employ strong passwords to access WordPress.</p>
    63                     <h2>An Overview of WordPress</h2>
    64                     <p>WordPress is a free and open source content management system (CMS). It is the most widely-used CMS software in the world and it powers more than 27% of the top 10 million websites<sup id="ref1"><a href="#footnote1">1</a></a></sup>, giving it an estimated 58% market share of all sites using a CMS.</p>
    65 
    66                     <p>WordPress is licensed under the General Public License (GPLv2 or later) which provides four core freedoms, and can be considered as the WordPress "bill of rights":</p>
     59                    <h2><?php _e( 'Overview', 'wporg' ); ?></h2>
     60
     61                    <p><?php _e( 'This document is an analysis and explanation of the WordPress core software development and its related security processes, as well as an examination of the inherent security built directly into the software. Decision makers evaluating WordPress as a content management system or web application framework should use this document in their analysis and decision-making, and for developers to refer to it to familiarize themselves with the security components and best practices of the software.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     62
     63                    <p><?php _e( 'The information in this document is up-to-date for the latest stable release of the software, WordPress 4.7 at time of publication, but should be considered relevant also to the most recent versions of the software as backwards compatibility is a strong focus for the WordPress development team. Specific security measures and changes will be noted as they have been added to the core software in specific releases. It is strongly encouraged to always be running the latest stable version of WordPress to ensure the most secure experience possible.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     64                    <h2><?php _e( 'Executive Summary', 'wporg' ); ?></h2>
     65                    <p><?php
     66                        printf(
     67                            /* translators: %s: WordPress Market share - 30. Note the following % sign is escaped as %%. */
     68                            __( "WordPress is a dynamic open-source content management system which is used to power millions of websites, web applications, and blogs. It currently powers more than %s%% of the top 10 million websites on the Internet. WordPress' usability, extensibility, and mature development community make it a popular and secure choice for websites of all sizes.", 'wporg' ),
     69                            WP_MARKET_SHARE
     70                        );
     71                    ?></p>
     72
     73                    <p><?php _e( 'Since its inception in 2003, WordPress has undergone continual hardening so its core software can address and mitigate common security threats, including the Top 10 list identified by The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) as common security vulnerabilities, which are discussed in this document.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     74
     75                    <p><?php _e( 'The WordPress Security Team, in collaboration with the WordPress Core Leadership Team and backed by the WordPress global community, works to identify and resolve security issues in the core software available for distribution and installation at WordPress.org, as well as recommending and documenting security best practices for third-party plugin and theme authors.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     76
     77                    <p><?php _e( 'Site developers and administrators should pay particular attention to the correct use of core APIs and underlying server configuration which have been the source of common vulnerabilities, as well as ensuring all users employ strong passwords to access WordPress.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     78                    <h2><?php _e( 'An Overview of WordPress', 'wporg' ); ?></h2>
     79                    <p><?php
     80                        printf(
     81                            /* translators: 1: WordPress Market share - 30. Note the following % sign is escaped as %%. 2: Footnote 3: Market Penetration - 60.  Note the following % sign is escaped as %%. */
     82                            __( 'WordPress is a free and open source content management system (CMS). It is the most widely-used CMS software in the world and it powers more than %1$s%% of the top 10 million websites%2$s, giving it an estimated 58% market share of all sites
     83using a CMS.', 'wporg' ),
     84                            WP_MARKET_SHARE,
     85                            '<sup id="ref1"><a href="#footnote1">1</a></a></sup>',
     86                            60
     87                        );
     88                    ?></p>
     89
     90                    <p><?php _e( 'WordPress is licensed under the General Public License (GPLv2 or later) which provides four core freedoms, and can be considered as the WordPress "bill of rights":', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
    6791                    <ol>
    68                         <li>The freedom to run the program, for any purpose.</li>
    69                         <li>The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish.</li>
    70                         <li>The freedom to redistribute.</li>
    71                         <li>The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others.</li>
     92                        <li><?php _e( 'The freedom to run the program, for any purpose.', 'wporg' ); ?></li>
     93                        <li><?php _e( 'The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish.', 'wporg' ); ?></li>
     94                        <li><?php _e( 'The freedom to redistribute.', 'wporg' ); ?></li>
     95                        <li><?php _e( 'The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others.', 'wporg' ); ?></li>
    7296                    </ol>
    73                     <h3>The WordPress Core Leadership Team</h3>
    74                     <p>The WordPress project is a meritocracy, run by a core leadership team, and led by its co-creator and lead developer, Matt Mullenweg. The team governs all aspects of the project, including core development, WordPress.org, and community initiatives.</p>
    75 
    76                     <p>The Core Leadership Team consists of Matt Mullenweg, five lead developers, and more than a dozen core developers with permanent commit access. These developers have final authority on technical decisions, and lead architecture discussions and implementation efforts.</p>
    77 
    78                     <p>WordPress has a number of contributing developers. Some of these are former or current committers, and some are likely future committers. These contributing developers are trusted and veteran contributors to WordPress who have earned a great deal of respect among their peers. As needed, WordPress also has guest committers, individuals who are granted commit access, sometimes for a specific component, on a temporary or trial basis.</p>
    79 
    80                     <p>The core and contributing developers primarily guide WordPress development. Every version, hundreds of developers contribute code to WordPress. These core contributors are volunteers who contribute to the core codebase in some way.</p>
    81                     <h3>The WordPress Release Cycle</h3>
    82                     <p>Each WordPress release cycle is led by one or more of the core WordPress developers. A release cycle usually lasts around 4 months from the initial scoping meeting to launch of the version.</p>
    83 
    84                     <p>A release cycle follows the following pattern<sup id="ref2"><a href="#footnote2">2</a></sup>:</p>
     97                    <h3><?php _e( 'The WordPress Core Leadership Team', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     98                    <p><?php _e( 'The WordPress project is a meritocracy, run by a core leadership team, and led by its co-creator and lead developer, Matt Mullenweg. The team governs all aspects of the project, including core development, WordPress.org, and community initiatives.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     99
     100                    <p><?php _e( 'The Core Leadership Team consists of Matt Mullenweg, five lead developers, and more than a dozen core developers with permanent commit access. These developers have final authority on technical decisions, and lead architecture discussions and implementation efforts.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     101
     102                    <p><?php _e( 'WordPress has a number of contributing developers. Some of these are former or current committers, and some are likely future committers. These contributing developers are trusted and veteran contributors to WordPress who have earned a great deal of respect among their peers. As needed, WordPress also has guest committers, individuals who are granted commit access, sometimes for a specific component, on a temporary or trial basis.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     103
     104                    <p><?php _e( 'The core and contributing developers primarily guide WordPress development. Every version, hundreds of developers contribute code to WordPress. These core contributors are volunteers who contribute to the core codebase in some way.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     105                    <h3><?php _e( 'The WordPress Release Cycle', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     106                    <p><?php _e( 'Each WordPress release cycle is led by one or more of the core WordPress developers. A release cycle usually lasts around 4 months from the initial scoping meeting to launch of the version.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     107
     108                    <p><?php
     109                        printf(
     110                            /* translators: %s: Footnote*/
     111                            __( 'A release cycle follows the following pattern%s:', 'wporg' ),
     112                            '<sup id="ref2"><a href="#footnote2">2</a></sup>'
     113                        );
     114                    ?></p>
    85115                    <ul>
    86                         <li>Phase 1: Planning and securing team leads. This is done in the #core chat room on Slack. The release lead discusses features for the next release of WordPress. WordPress contributors get involved with that discussion. The release lead will identify team leads for each of the features.</li>
    87                         <li>Phase 2: Development work begins. Team leads assemble teams and work on their assigned features. Regular chats are scheduled to ensure the development keeps moving forward.</li>
    88                         <li>Phase 3: Beta. Betas are released, and beta-testers are asked to start reporting bugs. No more commits for new enhancements or feature requests are carried out from this phase on. Third-party plugin and theme authors are encouraged to test their code against the upcoming changes.</li>
    89                         <li>Phase 4: Release Candidate. There is a string freeze for translatable strings from this point on. Work is targeted on regressions and blockers only.</li>
    90                         <li>Phase 5: Launch. WordPress version is launched and made available in the WordPress Admin for updates.</li>
     116                        <li><?php _e( 'Phase 1: Planning and securing team leads. This is done in the #core chat room on Slack. The release lead discusses features for the next release of WordPress. WordPress contributors get involved with that discussion. The release lead will identify team leads for each of the features.', 'wporg' ); ?></li>
     117                        <li><?php _e( 'Phase 2: Development work begins. Team leads assemble teams and work on their assigned features. Regular chats are scheduled to ensure the development keeps moving forward.', 'wporg' ); ?></li>
     118                        <li><?php _e( 'Phase 3: Beta. Betas are released, and beta-testers are asked to start reporting bugs. No more commits for new enhancements or feature requests are carried out from this phase on. Third-party plugin and theme authors are encouraged to test their code against the upcoming changes.', 'wporg' ); ?></li>
     119                        <li><?php _e( 'Phase 4: Release Candidate. There is a string freeze for translatable strings from this point on. Work is targeted on regressions and blockers only.', 'wporg' ); ?></li>
     120                        <li><?php _e( 'Phase 5: Launch. WordPress version is launched and made available in the WordPress Admin for updates.', 'wporg' ); ?></li>
    91121                    </ul>
    92                     <h3>Version Numbering and Security Releases</h3>
    93                     <p>A major WordPress version is dictated by the first two sequences. For example, 3.5 is a major release, as is 3.6, 3.7, or 4.0. There isn't a "WordPress 3" or "WordPress 4" and each major release is referred to by its numbering, e.g., "WordPress 3.9."</p>
    94 
    95                     <p>Major releases may add new user features and developer APIs. Though typically in the software world, a "major" version means you can break backwards compatibility, WordPress strives to never break backwards compatibility. Backwards compatibility is one of the project's most important philosophies, with the aim of making updates much easier on users and developers alike.</p>
    96 
    97                     <p>A minor WordPress version is dictated by the third sequence. Version 3.5.1 is a minor release, as is 3.4.2<sup id="ref3"><a href="#footnote3">3</a></sup>. A minor release is reserved for fixing security vulnerabilities and addressing critical bugs only. Since new versions of WordPress are released so frequently &mdash; the aim is every 4-5 months for a major release, and minor releases happen as needed &mdash; there is only a need for major and minor releases.</p>
    98 
    99                     <h3>Version Backwards Compatibility</h3>
    100                     <p>The WordPress project has a strong commitment to backwards compatibility. This commitment means that themes, plugins, and custom code continues to function when WordPress core software is updated, encouraging site owners to keep their WordPress version updated to the latest secure release.</p>
    101                     <h2>WordPress and Security</h2>
    102                     <h3>The WordPress Security Team</h3>
    103                     <p>The WordPress Security Team is made up of approximately 50 experts including lead developers and security researchers &mdash; about half are employees of Automattic (makers of WordPress.com, the earliest and largest WordPress hosting platform on the web), and a number work in the web security field. The team consults with well-known and trusted security researchers and hosting companies<sup><a href="#footnote3">3</a></sup>.</p>
    104 
    105                     <p>The WordPress Security Team often collaborates with other security teams to address issues in common dependencies, such as resolving the vulnerability in the PHP XML parser, used by the XML-RPC API that ships with WordPress, in WordPress 3.9.2<sup id="ref4"><a href="#footnote4">4</a></sup>. This vulnerability resolution was a result of a joint effort by both WordPress and Drupal security teams.</p>
    106                     <h3>WordPress Security Risks, Process, and History</h3>
    107                     <p>The WordPress Security Team believes in Responsible Disclosure by alerting the security team immediately of any potential vulnerabilities. Potential security vulnerabilities can be signaled to the Security Team via the <a href="https://hackerone.com/wordpress">WordPress HackerOne</a><sup id="ref5"><a href="#footnote5">5</a></sup>. The Security Team communicates amongst itself via a private Slack channel, and works on a walled-off, private Trac for tracking, testing, and fixing bugs and security problems.</p>
    108 
    109                     <p>Each security report is acknowledged upon receipt, and the team works to verify the vulnerability and determine its severity. If confirmed, the security team then plans for a patch to fix the problem which can be committed to an upcoming release of the WordPress software or it can be pushed as an immediate security release, depending on the severity of the issue.</p>
    110 
    111                     <p>For an immediate security release, an advisory is published by the Security Team to the WordPress.org News site<sup id="ref6"><a href="#footnote6">6</a></sup> announcing the release and detailing the changes. Credit for the responsible disclosure of a vulnerability is given in the advisory to encourage and reinforce continued responsible reporting in the future.</p>
    112 
    113                     <p>Administrators of the WordPress software see a notification on their site dashboard to upgrade when a new release is available, and following the manual upgrade users are redirected to the About WordPress screen which details the changes. If administrators have automatic background updates enabled, they will receive an email after an upgrade has been completed.</p>
    114                     <h3>Automatic Background Updates for Security Releases</h3>
    115                     <p>Starting with version 3.7, WordPress introduced automated background updates for all minor releases<sup id="ref7"><a href="#footnote7">7</a></sup>, such as 3.7.1 and 3.7.2. The WordPress Security Team can identify, fix, and push out automated security enhancements for WordPress without the site owner needing to do anything on their end, and the security update will install automatically.</p>
    116 
    117                     <p>When a security update is pushed for the current stable release of WordPress, the core team will also push security updates for all the releases that are capable of background updates (since WordPress 3.7), so these older but still recent versions of WordPress will receive security enhancements.</p>
    118 
    119                     <p>Individual site owners can opt to remove automatic background updates through a simple change in their configuration file, but keeping the functionality is strongly recommended by the core team, as well as running the latest stable release of WordPress.</p>
    120                     <h3>2013 OWASP Top 10</h3>
    121                     <p>The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is an online community dedicated to web application security. The OWASP Top 10 list<sup id="ref8"><a href="#footnote8">8</a></sup> focuses on identifying the most serious application security risks for a broad array of organizations. The Top 10 items are selected and prioritized in combination with consensus estimates of exploitability, detectability, and impact estimates.</p>
    122 
    123                     <p>The following sections discuss the APIs, resources, and policies that WordPress uses to strengthen the core software and 3rd party plugins and themes against these potential risks.</p>
    124                     <h4>A1 - Injection</h4>
    125                     <p>There is a set of functions and APIs available in WordPress to assist developers in making sure unauthorized code cannot be injected, and help them validate and sanitize data. Best practices and documentation are available<sup id="ref9"><a href="#footnote9">9</a></sup> on how to use these APIs to protect, validate, or sanitize input and output data in HTML, URLs, HTTP headers, and when interacting with the database and filesystem. Administrators can also further restrict the types of file which can be uploaded via filters.</p>
    126                     <h4>A2 - Broken Authentication and Session Management</h4>
    127                     <p>WordPress core software manages user accounts and authentication and details such as the user ID, name, and password are managed on the server-side, as well as the authentication cookies. Passwords are protected in the database using standard salting and stretching techniques. Existing sessions are destroyed upon logout for versions of WordPress after 4.0.</p>
    128                     <h4>A3 - Cross Site Scripting (XSS)</h4>
    129                     <p>WordPress provides a range of functions which can help ensure that user-supplied data is safe<sup id="ref10"><a href="#footnote10">10</a></sup>. Trusted users, that is administrators and editors on a single WordPress installation, and network administrators only in WordPress Multisite, can post unfiltered HTML or JavaScript as they need to, such as inside a post or page. Untrusted users and user-submitted content is filtered by default to remove dangerous entities, using the KSES library through the <code>wp_kses</code> function.</p>
    130 
    131                     <p>As an example, the WordPress core team noticed before the release of WordPress 2.3 that the function <code>the_search_query()</code> was being misused by most theme authors, who were not escaping the function's output for use in HTML. In a very rare case of slightly breaking backward compatibility, the function's output was changed in WordPress 2.3 to be pre-escaped.</p>
    132                     <h4>A4 - Insecure Direct Object Reference</h4>
    133                     <p>WordPress often provides direct object reference, such as unique numeric identifiers of user accounts or content available in the URL or form fields. While these identifiers disclose direct system information, WordPress' rich permissions and access control system prevent unauthorized requests.</p>
    134                     <h4>A5 - Security Misconfiguration</h4>
    135                     <p>The majority of the WordPress security configuration operations are limited to a single authorized administrator. Default settings for WordPress are continually evaluated at the core team level, and the WordPress core team provides documentation and best practices to tighten security for server configuration for running a WordPress site<sup id="ref11"><a href="#footnote11">11</a></sup>.</p>
    136                     <h4>A6 - Sensitive Data Exposure</h4>
    137                     <p>WordPress user account passwords are salted and hashed based on the Portable PHP Password Hashing Framework<sup id="ref12"><a href="#footnote12">12</a></sup>. WordPress' permission system is used to control access to private information such an registered users' PII, commenters' email addresses, privately published content, etc. In WordPress 3.7, a password strength meter was included in the core software providing additional information to users setting their passwords and hints on increasing strength. WordPress also has an optional configuration setting for requiring HTTPS.</p>
    138                     <h4>A7 - Missing Function Level Access Control</h4>
    139                     <p>WordPress checks for proper authorization and permissions for any function level access requests prior to the action being executed. Access or visualization of administrative URLs, menus, and pages without proper authentication is tightly integrated with the authentication system to prevent access from unauthorized users.</p>
    140                     <h4>A8 - Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF)</h4>
    141                     <p>WordPress uses cryptographic tokens, called nonces<sup id="ref13"><a href="#footnote13">13</a></sup>, to validate intent of action requests from authorized users to protect against potential CSRF threats. WordPress provides an API for the generation of these tokens to create and verify unique and temporary tokens, and the token is limited to a specific user, a specific action, a specific object, and a specific time period, which can be added to forms and URLs as needed. Additionally, all nonces are invalidated upon logout.</p>
    142                     <h4>A9 - Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities</h4>
    143                     <p>The WordPress core team closely monitors the few included libraries and frameworks WordPress integrates with for core functionality. In the past the core team has made contributions to several third-party components to make them more secure, such as the update to fix a cross-site vulnerability in TinyMCE in WordPress 3.5.2<sup id="ref14"><a href="#footnote14">14</a></sup>.</p>
    144 
    145                     <p>If necessary, the core team may decide to fork or replace critical external components, such as when the SWFUpload library was officially replaced by the Plupload library in 3.5.2, and a secure fork of SWFUpload was made available by the security team<sup id="ref15"><a href="#footnote15">15</a></sup> for those plugins who continued to use SWFUpload in the short-term.</p>
    146                     <h4>A10 - Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards</h4>
    147                     <p>WordPress' internal access control and authentication system will protect against attempts to direct users to unwanted destinations or automatic redirects. This functionality is also made available to plugin developers via an API, <code>wp_safe_redirect()</code><sup id="ref16"><a href="#footnote16">16</a></sup>.</p>
    148                     <h3>Further Security Risks and Concerns</h3>
    149                     <h4>XXE (XML eXternal Entity) processing attacks</h4>
    150                     <p>When processing XML, WordPress disables the loading of custom XML entities to prevent both External Entity and Entity Expansion attacks. Beyond PHP's core functionality, WordPress does not provide additional secure XML processing API for plugin authors.</p>
    151                     <h4>SSRF (Server Side Request Forgery) Attacks</h4>
    152                     <p>HTTP requests issued by WordPress are filtered to prevent access to loopback and private IP addresses. Additionally, access is only allowed to certain standard HTTP ports.</p>
    153                     <h2>WordPress Plugin and Theme Security</h2>
    154                     <h3>The Default Theme</h3>
    155                     <p>WordPress requires a theme to be enabled to render content visible on the frontend. The default theme which ships with core WordPress (currently "Twenty Fifteen") has been vigorously reviewed and tested for security reasons by both the team of theme developers plus the core development team.</p>
    156 
    157                     <p>The default theme can serve as a starting point for custom theme development, and site developers can create a child theme which includes some customization but falls back on the default theme for most functionality and security. The default theme can be easily removed by an administrator if not needed.</p>
    158 
    159                     <h3>WordPress.org Theme and Plugin Repositories</h3>
    160 
    161                     <p>There are approximately 50,000+ plugins and 4,500+ themes listed on the WordPress.org site. These themes and plugins are submitted for inclusion and are manually reviewed by volunteers before making them available on the repository.</p>
    162 
    163                     <p>Inclusion of plugins and themes in the repository is not a guarantee that they are free from security vulnerabilities. Guidelines are provided for plugin authors to consult prior to submission for inclusion in the repository<sup id="ref17"><a href="#footnote17">17</a></sup>, and extensive documentation about how to do WordPress theme development<sup id="ref18"><a href="#footnote18">18</a></sup> is provided on the WordPress.org site.</p>
    164 
    165                     <p>Each plugin and theme has the ability to be continually developed by the plugin or theme owner, and any subsequent fixes or feature development can be uploaded to the repository and made available to users with that plugin or theme installed with a description of that change. Site administrators are notified of plugins which need to be updated via their administration dashboard.</p>
    166 
    167                     <p>When a plugin vulnerability is discovered by the WordPress Security Team, they contact the plugin author and work together to fix and release a secure version of the plugin. If there is a lack of response from the plugin author or if the vulnerability is severe, the plugin/theme is pulled from the public directory, and in some cases, fixed and updated directly by the Security Team.</p>
    168                     <h3>The Theme Review Team</h3>
    169                     <p>The Theme Review Team is a group of volunteers, led by key and established members of the WordPress community, who review and approve themes submitted to be included in the official WordPress Theme directory. The Theme Review Team maintains the official Theme Review Guidelines<sup id="ref19"><a href="#footnote19">19</a></sup>, the Theme Unit Test Data<sup id="ref20"><a href="#footnote20">20</a></sup>, and the Theme Check Plugin<sup id="ref21"><a href="#footnote21">21</a></sup>, and attempts to engage and educate the WordPress Theme developer community regarding development best practices. Inclusion in the group is moderated by core committers of the WordPress development team.</p>
    170                     <h2>The Role of the Hosting Provider in WordPress Security</h2>
    171                     <p>WordPress can be installed on a multitude of platforms. Though WordPress core software provides many provisions for operating a secure web application, which were covered in this document, the configuration of the operating system and the underlying web server hosting the software is equally important to keep the WordPress applications secure.</p>
    172                     <h3>A Note about WordPress.com and WordPress security</h3>
    173                     <p>WordPress.com is the largest WordPress installation in the world, and is owned and managed by Automattic, Inc., which was founded by Matt Mullenweg, the WordPress project co-creator. WordPress.com runs on the core WordPress software, and has its own security processes, risks, and solutions<sup id="ref22"><a href="#footnote22">22</a></sup>. This document refers to security regarding the self-hosted, downloadable open source WordPress software available from WordPress.org and installable on any server in the world.</p>
    174                     <h2>Appendix</h2>
    175                     <h3>Core WordPress APIs</h3>
    176                     <p>The WordPress Core Application Programming Interface (API) is comprised of several individual APIs<sup id="ref23"><a href="#footnote23">23</a></sup>, each one covering the functions involved in, and use of, a given set of functionality. Together, these form the project interface which allows plugins and themes to interact with, alter, and extend WordPress core functionality safely and securely.</p>
    177 
    178                     <p>While each WordPress API provides best practices and standardized ways to interact with and extend WordPress core software, the following WordPress APIs are the most pertinent to enforcing and hardening WordPress security:</p>
    179 
    180                     <h3>Database API</h3>
    181 
    182                     <p>The Database API<sup id="ref24"><a href="#footnote24">24</a></sup>, added in WordPress 0.71, provides the correct method for accessing data as named values which are stored in the database layer.</p>
    183 
    184                     <h3>Filesystem API</h3>
    185 
    186                     <p>The Filesystem API<sup id="ref25"><a href="#footnote25">25</a></sup>, added in WordPress 2.6<sup id="ref26"><a href="#footnote26">26</a></sup>, was originally created for WordPress' own automatic updates feature. The Filesystem API abstracts out the functionality needed for reading and writing local files to the filesystem to be done securely, on a variety of host types.</p>
    187 
    188                     <p>It does this through the <code>WP_Filesystem_Base</code> class, and several subclasses which implement different ways of connecting to the local filesystem, depending on individual host support. Any theme or plugin that needs to write files locally should do so using the WP_Filesystem family of classes.</p>
    189 
    190                     <h3>HTTP API</h3>
    191 
    192                     <p>The HTTP API<sup id="ref27"><a href="#footnote27">27</a></sup>, added in WordPress 2.7<sup id="ref28"><a href="#footnote28">28</a></sup> and extended further in WordPress 2.8, standardizes the HTTP requests for WordPress. The API handles cookies, gzip encoding and decoding, chunk decoding (if HTTP 1.1), and various other HTTP protocol implementations. The API standardizes requests, tests each method prior to sending, and, based on your server configuration, uses the appropriate method to make the request.</p>
    193 
    194                     <h3>Permissions and current user API</h3>
    195 
    196                     <p>The permissions and current user API<sup id="ref29"><a href="#footnote29">29</a></sup> is a set of functions which will help verify the current user's permissions and authority to perform any task or operation being requested, and can protect further against unauthorized users accessing or performing functions beyond their permitted capabilities.</p>
    197                     <h3>White paper content License</h3>
    198                     <p>The text in this document (not including the WordPress logo or <a href="http://wordpressfoundation.org/trademark-policy/">trademark</a>) is licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/">CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication</a>. You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.</p>
    199 
    200                     <p><em>A special thank you to Drupal's </em><a href="http://drupalsecurityreport.org/"><em>security white paper</em></a><em>, which provided some inspiration. </em></p>
    201                     <h3>Additional Reading</h3>
     122                    <h3><?php _e( 'Version Numbering and Security Releases', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     123                    <p><?php _e( "A major WordPress version is dictated by the first two sequences. For example, 3.5 is a major release, as is 3.6, 3.7, or 4.0. There isn't a &ldquo;WordPress 3&rdquo; or &ldquo;WordPress 4&rdquo; and each major release is referred to by its numbering, e.g., &ldquo;WordPress 3.9.&rdquo;", 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     124
     125                    <p><?php _e( "Major releases may add new user features and developer APIs. Though typically in the software world, a &ldquo;major   &rdquo; version means you can break backwards compatibility, WordPress strives to never break backwards compatibility. Backwards compatibility is one of the project's most important philosophies, with the aim of making updates much easier on users and developers alike.", 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     126
     127                    <p><?php
     128                        printf(
     129                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     130                            __( 'A minor WordPress version is dictated by the third sequence. Version 3.5.1 is a minor release, as is 3.4.2%s. A minor release is reserved for fixing security vulnerabilities and addressing critical bugs only. Since new versions of WordPress are released so frequently &mdash; the aim is every 4-5 months for a major release, and minor releases happen as needed &mdash; there is only a need for major and minor releases.', 'wporg' ),
     131                            '<sup id="ref3"><a href="#footnote3">3</a></sup>'
     132                        );
     133                    ?></p>
     134
     135                    <h3><?php _e( 'Version Backwards Compatibility', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     136                    <p><?php _e( 'The WordPress project has a strong commitment to backwards compatibility. This commitment means that themes, plugins, and custom code continues to function when WordPress core software is updated, encouraging site owners to keep their WordPress version updated to the latest secure release.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     137                    <h2><?php _e( 'WordPress and Security', 'wporg' ); ?></h2>
     138                    <h3><?php _e( 'The WordPress Security Team', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     139                    <p><?php
     140                        printf(
     141                            /* translators: 1: Number - 50; 2: Footnote*/
     142                            __( 'The WordPress Security Team is made up of approximately %1$s experts including lead developers and security researchers &mdash; about half are employees of Automattic (makers of WordPress.com, the earliest and largest WordPress hosting platform on the web), and a number work in the web security field. The team consults with well-known and trusted security researchers and hosting companies%2$s.', 'wporg' ),
     143                            50,
     144                            '<sup><a href="#footnote3">3</a></sup>'
     145                        );
     146                    ?></p>
     147
     148                    <p><?php
     149                        printf(
     150                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     151                            __( 'The WordPress Security Team often collaborates with other security teams to address issues in common dependencies, such as resolving the vulnerability in the PHP XML parser, used by the XML-RPC API that ships with WordPress, in WordPress 3.9.2%s. This vulnerability resolution was a result of a joint effort by both WordPress and Drupal security teams.', 'wporg' ),
     152                            '<sup id="ref4"><a href="#footnote4">4</a></sup>'
     153                        );
     154                    ?></p>
     155                    <h3><?php _e( 'WordPress Security Risks, Process, and History', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     156                    <p><?php
     157                        printf(
     158                            /* translators: 1: HackerOne URL 2: Footnote */
     159                            __( 'The WordPress Security Team believes in Responsible Disclosure by alerting the security team immediately of any potential vulnerabilities. Potential security vulnerabilities can be signaled to the Security Team via the <a href="%1$s">WordPress HackerOne</a>%2$s. The Security Team communicates amongst itself via a private Slack channel, and works on a walled-off, private Trac for tracking, testing, and fixing bugs and security problems.', 'wporg' ),
     160                            'https://hackerone.com/wordpress',
     161                            '<sup id="ref5"><a href="#footnote5">5</a></sup>'
     162                        );
     163                    ?></p>
     164
     165                    <p><?php _e( 'Each security report is acknowledged upon receipt, and the team works to verify the vulnerability and determine its severity. If confirmed, the security team then plans for a patch to fix the problem which can be committed to an upcoming release of the WordPress software or it can be pushed as an immediate security release, depending on the severity of the issue.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     166
     167                    <p><?php
     168                        printf(
     169                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     170                            __( 'For an immediate security release, an advisory is published by the Security Team to the WordPress.org News site%s announcing the release and detailing the changes. Credit for the responsible disclosure of a vulnerability is given in the advisory to encourage and reinforce continued responsible reporting in the future.', 'wporg' ),
     171                            '<sup id="ref6"><a href="#footnote6">6</a></sup>'
     172                        );
     173                    ?></p>
     174
     175                    <p><?php _e( 'Administrators of the WordPress software see a notification on their site dashboard to upgrade when a new release is available, and following the manual upgrade users are redirected to the About WordPress screen which details the changes. If administrators have automatic background updates enabled, they will receive an email after an upgrade has been completed.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     176
     177                    <h3><?php _e( 'Automatic Background Updates for Security Releases', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     178                    <p><?php
     179                        printf(
     180                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     181                            __( 'Starting with version 3.7, WordPress introduced automated background updates for all minor releases%s, such as 3.7.1 and 3.7.2. The WordPress Security Team can identify, fix, and push out automated security enhancements for WordPress without the site owner needing to do anything on their end, and the security update will install automatically.', 'wporg' ),
     182                            '<sup id="ref7"><a href="#footnote7">7</a></sup>'
     183                        );
     184                    ?></p>
     185
     186                    <p><?php _e( 'When a security update is pushed for the current stable release of WordPress, the core team will also push security updates for all the releases that are capable of background updates (since WordPress 3.7), so these older but still recent versions of WordPress will receive security enhancements.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     187
     188                    <p><?php _e( 'Individual site owners can opt to remove automatic background updates through a simple change in their configuration file, but keeping the functionality is strongly recommended by the core team, as well as running the latest stable release of WordPress.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     189                    <h3><?php _e( '2013 OWASP Top 10', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     190                    <p><?php
     191                        printf(
     192                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     193                            __( 'The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is an online community dedicated to web application security. The OWASP Top 10 list%s focuses on identifying the most serious application security risks for a broad array of organizations. The Top 10 items are selected and prioritized in combination with consensus estimates of exploitability, detectability, and impact estimates.', 'wporg' ),
     194                            '<sup id="ref8"><a href="#footnote8">8</a></sup>'
     195                        );
     196                    ?></p>
     197
     198                    <p><?php _e( 'The following sections discuss the APIs, resources, and policies that WordPress uses to strengthen the core software and 3rd party plugins and themes against these potential risks.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     199                    <h4><?php _e( 'A1 - Injection', 'wporg' ); ?></h4>
     200                    <p><?php _e( 'There is a set of functions and APIs available in WordPress to assist developers in making sure unauthorized code cannot be injected, and help them validate and sanitize data. Best practices and documentation are available<sup id="ref9"><a href="#footnote9">9</a></sup> on how to use these APIs to protect, validate, or sanitize input and output data in HTML, URLs, HTTP headers, and when interacting with the database and filesystem. Administrators can also further restrict the types of file which can be uploaded via filters.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     201                    <h4><?php _e( 'A2 - Broken Authentication and Session Management', 'wporg' ); ?></h4>
     202                    <p><?php _e( 'WordPress core software manages user accounts and authentication and details such as the user ID, name, and password are managed on the server-side, as well as the authentication cookies. Passwords are protected in the database using standard salting and stretching techniques. Existing sessions are destroyed upon logout for versions of WordPress after 4.0.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     203                    <h4><?php _e( 'A3 - Cross Site Scripting (XSS)', 'wporg' ); ?></h4>
     204                    <p><?php _e( 'WordPress provides a range of functions which can help ensure that user-supplied data is safe<sup id="ref10"><a href="#footnote10">10</a></sup>. Trusted users, that is administrators and editors on a single WordPress installation, and network administrators only in WordPress Multisite, can post unfiltered HTML or JavaScript as they need to, such as inside a post or page. Untrusted users and user-submitted content is filtered by default to remove dangerous entities, using the KSES library through the <code>wp_kses</code> function.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     205
     206                    <p><?php _e( "As an example, the WordPress core team noticed before the release of WordPress 2.3 that the function <code>the_search_query()</code> was being misused by most theme authors, who were not escaping the function's output for use in HTML. In a very rare case of slightly breaking backward compatibility, the function's output was changed in WordPress 2.3 to be pre-escaped.", 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     207                    <h4><?php _e( 'A4 - Insecure Direct Object Reference', 'wporg' ); ?></h4>
     208                    <p><?php _e( "WordPress often provides direct object reference, such as unique numeric identifiers of user accounts or content available in the URL or form fields. While these identifiers disclose direct system information, WordPress' rich permissions and access control system prevent unauthorized requests.", 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     209                    <h4><?php _e( 'A5 - Security Misconfiguration', 'wporg' ); ?></h4>
     210                    <p><?php
     211                        printf(
     212                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     213                            __( 'The majority of the WordPress security configuration operations are limited to a single authorized administrator. Default settings for WordPress are continually evaluated at the core team level, and the WordPress core team provides documentation and best practices to tighten security for server configuration for running a WordPress site%s.', 'wporg' ),
     214                            '<sup id="ref11"><a href="#footnote11">11</a></sup>'
     215                        );
     216                    ?></p>
     217                    <h4><?php _e( 'A6 - Sensitive Data Exposure', 'wporg' ); ?></h4>
     218                    <p><?php
     219                        printf(
     220                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     221                            __( "WordPress user account passwords are salted and hashed based on the Portable PHP Password Hashing Framework%s. WordPress' permission system is used to control access to private information such an registered users' PII, commenters' email addresses, privately published content, etc. In WordPress 3.7, a password strength meter was included in the core software providing additional information to users setting their passwords and hints on increasing strength. WordPress also has an optional configuration setting for requiring HTTPS.", 'wporg' ),
     222                            '<sup id="ref12"><a href="#footnote12">12</a></sup>'
     223                        );
     224                    ?></p>
     225
     226                    <h4><?php _e( 'A7 - Missing Function Level Access Control', 'wporg' ); ?></h4>
     227                    <p><?php _e( 'WordPress checks for proper authorization and permissions for any function level access requests prior to the action being executed. Access or visualization of administrative URLs, menus, and pages without proper authentication is tightly integrated with the authentication system to prevent access from unauthorized users.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     228
     229                    <h4><?php _e( 'A8 - Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF)', 'wporg' ); ?></h4>
     230                    <p><?php
     231                        printf(
     232                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     233                            __( 'WordPress uses cryptographic tokens, called nonces%s, to validate intent of action requests from authorized users to protect against potential CSRF threats. WordPress provides an API for the generation of these tokens to create and verify unique and temporary tokens, and the token is limited to a specific user, a specific action, a specific object, and a specific time period, which can be added to forms and URLs as needed. Additionally, all nonces are invalidated upon logout.', 'wporg' ),
     234                            '<sup id="ref13"><a href="#footnote13">13</a></sup>'
     235                        );
     236                    ?></p>
     237
     238                    <h4><?php _e( 'A9 - Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities', 'wporg' ); ?></h4>
     239                    <p><?php
     240                        printf(
     241                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     242                            __( 'The WordPress core team closely monitors the few included libraries and frameworks WordPress integrates with for core functionality. In the past the core team has made contributions to several third-party components to make them more secure, such as the update to fix a cross-site vulnerability in TinyMCE in WordPress 3.5.2%s.', 'wporg' ),
     243                            '<sup id="ref14"><a href="#footnote14">14</a></sup>'
     244                        );
     245                    ?></p>
     246
     247                    <p><?php
     248                        printf(
     249                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     250                            __( 'If necessary, the core team may decide to fork or replace critical external components, such as when the SWFUpload library was officially replaced by the Plupload library in 3.5.2, and a secure fork of SWFUpload was made available by the security team<%s for those plugins who continued to use SWFUpload in the short-term.', 'wporg' ),
     251                            'sup id="ref15"><a href="#footnote15">15</a></sup>'
     252                        );
     253                    ?></p>
     254
     255                    <h4><?php _e( 'A10 - Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards', 'wporg' ); ?></h4>
     256                    <p><?php
     257                        printf(
     258                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     259                            __( "WordPress' internal access control and authentication system will protect against attempts to direct users to unwanted destinations or automatic redirects. This functionality is also made available to plugin developers via an API, <code>wp_safe_redirect()</code>%s.", 'wporg' ),
     260                            '<sup id="ref16"><a href="#footnote16">16</a></sup>'
     261                        );
     262                    ?></p>
     263                    <h3><?php _e( 'Further Security Risks and Concerns', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     264                    <h4><?php _e( 'XXE (XML eXternal Entity) processing attacks', 'wporg' ); ?></h4>
     265                    <p><?php _e( "When processing XML, WordPress disables the loading of custom XML entities to prevent both External Entity and Entity Expansion attacks. Beyond PHP's core functionality, WordPress does not provide additional secure XML processing API for plugin authors.", 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     266                    <h4><?php _e( 'SSRF (Server Side Request Forgery) Attacks', 'wporg' ); ?></h4>
     267                    <p><?php _e( 'HTTP requests issued by WordPress are filtered to prevent access to loopback and private IP addresses. Additionally, access is only allowed to certain standard HTTP ports.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     268                    <h2><?php _e( 'WordPress Plugin and Theme Security', 'wporg' ); ?></h2>
     269                    <h3><?php _e( 'The Default Theme', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     270                    <p><?php _e( 'WordPress requires a theme to be enabled to render content visible on the frontend. The default theme which ships with core WordPress (currently "Twenty Fifteen") has been vigorously reviewed and tested for security reasons by both the team of theme developers plus the core development team.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     271
     272                    <p><?php _e( 'The default theme can serve as a starting point for custom theme development, and site developers can create a child theme which includes some customization but falls back on the default theme for most functionality and security. The default theme can be easily removed by an administrator if not needed.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     273
     274                    <h3><?php _e( 'WordPress.org Theme and Plugin Repositories', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     275
     276                    <p><?php
     277                        printf(
     278                            /* translators: 1: Number of plugins - 50,000; 2: Number of themes - 5,000 */
     279                            __( 'There are approximately %1$s+ plugins and %2$s+ themes listed on the WordPress.org site. These themes and plugins are submitted for inclusion and are manually reviewed by volunteers before making them available on the repository.', 'wporg'
     280),
     281                            number_format_i18n( 50000 ),
     282                            number_format_i18n( 5000 )
     283                        );
     284                    ?></p>
     285
     286                    <p><?php
     287                        printf(
     288                            /* translators: 1: Footnote; 2: Footnote */
     289                            __( 'Inclusion of plugins and themes in the repository is not a guarantee that they are free from security vulnerabilities. Guidelines are provided for plugin authors to consult prior to submission for inclusion in the repository%1$s, and extensive documentation about how to do WordPress theme development%2$s is provided on the WordPress.org site.', 'wporg' ),
     290                            '<sup id="ref17"><a href="#footnote17">17</a></sup>',
     291                            '<sup id="ref18"><a href="#footnote18">18</a></sup>'
     292                        );
     293                    ?></p>
     294
     295                    <p><?php _e( 'Each plugin and theme has the ability to be continually developed by the plugin or theme owner, and any subsequent fixes or feature development can be uploaded to the repository and made available to users with that plugin or theme installed with a description of that change. Site administrators are notified of plugins which need to be updated via their administration dashboard.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     296
     297                    <p><?php _e( 'When a plugin vulnerability is discovered by the WordPress Security Team, they contact the plugin author and work together to fix and release a secure version of the plugin. If there is a lack of response from the plugin author or if the vulnerability is severe, the plugin/theme is pulled from the public directory, and in some cases, fixed and updated directly by the Security Team.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     298                    <h3><?php _e( 'The Theme Review Team', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     299                    <p><?php
     300                        printf(
     301                            /* translators: 1: Footnote; 2: Footnote; 3: Footnote */
     302                            __( 'The Theme Review Team is a group of volunteers, led by key and established members of the WordPress community, who review and approve themes submitted to be included in the official WordPress Theme directory. The Theme Review Team maintains the official Theme Review Guidelines%1$s, the Theme Unit Test Datas%2$s, and the Theme Check Plugins%3$s, and attempts to engage and educate the WordPress Theme developer community regarding development best practices. Inclusion in the group is moderated by core committers of the WordPress development team.', 'wporg' ),
     303                            '<sup id="ref19"><a href="#footnote19">19</a></sup>',
     304                            '<sup id="ref20"><a href="#footnote20">20</a></sup>',
     305                            '<sup id="ref21"><a href="#footnote21">21</a></sup>'
     306                        );
     307                    ?></p>
     308                    <h2><?php _e( 'The Role of the Hosting Provider in WordPress Security', 'wporg' ); ?></h2>
     309                    <p><?php _e( 'WordPress can be installed on a multitude of platforms. Though WordPress core software provides many provisions for operating a secure web application, which were covered in this document, the configuration of the operating system and the underlying web server hosting the software is equally important to keep the WordPress applications secure.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     310                    <h3><?php _e( 'A Note about WordPress.com and WordPress security', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     311                    <p><?php
     312                        printf(
     313                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     314                            __( 'WordPress.com is the largest WordPress installation in the world, and is owned and managed by Automattic, Inc., which was founded by Matt Mullenweg, the WordPress project co-creator. WordPress.com runs on the core WordPress software, and has its own security processes, risks, and solutions%s. This document refers to security regarding the self-hosted, downloadable open source WordPress software available from WordPress.org and installable on any server in the world.', 'wporg' ),
     315                            '<sup id="ref22"><a href="#footnote22">22</a></sup>'
     316                        );
     317                    ?></p>
     318                    <h2><?php _e( 'Appendix', 'wporg' ); ?></h2>
     319                    <h3><?php _e( 'Core WordPress APIs', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     320                    <p><?php
     321                        printf(
     322                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     323                            __( 'The WordPress Core Application Programming Interface (API) is comprised of several individual APIs%s, each one covering the functions involved in, and use of, a given set of functionality. Together, these form the project interface which allows plugins and themes to interact with, alter, and extend WordPress core functionality safely and securely.', 'wporg' ),
     324                            '<sup id="ref23"><a href="#footnote23">23</a></sup>'
     325                        );
     326                    ?></p>
     327
     328                    <p><?php _e( 'While each WordPress API provides best practices and standardized ways to interact with and extend WordPress core software, the following WordPress APIs are the most pertinent to enforcing and hardening WordPress security:', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     329
     330                    <h3><?php _e( 'Database API', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     331
     332                    <p><?php
     333                        printf(
     334                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     335                            __( 'The Database API%s, added in WordPress 0.71, provides the correct method for accessing data as named values which are stored in the database layer.', 'wporg' ),
     336                            '<sup id="ref24"><a href="#footnote24">24</a></sup>'
     337                        );
     338                    ?></p>
     339
     340                    <h3><?php _e( 'Filesystem API', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     341
     342                    <p><?php
     343                        printf(
     344                            /* translators: 1: Footnote; 2: Footnote */
     345                            __( 'The Filesystem API%1$s, added in WordPress 2.6%2$s, was originally created for WordPress&lsquo; own automatic updates feature. The Filesystem API abstracts out the functionality needed for reading and writing local files to the filesystem to be done securely, on a variety of host types.', 'wporg' ),
     346                            '<sup id="ref25"><a href="#footnote25">25</a></sup>',
     347                            '<sup id="ref26"><a href="#footnote26">26</a></sup>'
     348                        );
     349                    ?></p>
     350
     351                    <p><?php _e( 'It does this through the <code>WP_Filesystem_Base</code> class, and several subclasses which implement different ways of connecting to the local filesystem, depending on individual host support. Any theme or plugin that needs to write files locally should do so using the WP_Filesystem family of classes.', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     352
     353                    <h3><?php _e( 'HTTP API', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     354
     355                    <p><?php
     356                        printf(
     357                            /* translators: 1: Footnote; 2: Footnote */
     358                            __( 'The HTTP API%1$s, added in WordPress 2.7%2$s and extended further in WordPress 2.8, standardizes the HTTP requests for WordPress. The API handles cookies, gzip encoding and decoding, chunk decoding (if HTTP 1.1), and various other HTTP protocol implementations. The API standardizes requests, tests each method prior to sending, and, based on your server configuration, uses the appropriate method to make the request.', 'wporg' ),
     359                            '<sup id="ref27"><a href="#footnote27">27</a></sup>',
     360                            '<sup id="ref28"><a href="#footnote28">28</a></sup>'
     361                        );
     362                    ?></p>
     363
     364                    <h3><?php _e( 'Permissions and current user API', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     365
     366                    <p><?php
     367                        printf(
     368                            /* translators: %s: Footnote */
     369                            __( "The permissions and current user API%s is a set of functions which will help verify the current user's permissions and authority to perform any task or operation being requested, and can protect further against unauthorized users accessing or performing functions beyond their permitted capabilities.", 'wporg' ),
     370                            '<sup id="ref29"><a href="#footnote29">29</a></sup>'
     371                        );
     372                    ?></p>
     373                    <h3><?php _e( 'White paper content License', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
     374                    <p><?php
     375                        printf(
     376                            /* translators: 1: Link to WordPress Foundation Trademark Polocy (English); 2: Link to Creative Commons CC0 license (English) */
     377                            __( 'The text in this document (not including the WordPress logo or <a href="%1$s">trademark</a>) is licensed under <a href="%2$s">CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication</a>. You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.', 'wporg' ),
     378                            'http://wordpressfoundation.org/trademark-policy/',
     379                            'https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/'
     380                        );
     381                    ?></p>
     382
     383                    <p><?php
     384                        printf(
     385                            /* translators: %s: Link to the Drupal Security Whitepaper (english). */
     386                            __( "<em>A special thank you to Drupal's </em><a href='%s'><em>security white paper</em></a><em>, which provided some inspiration. </em>", 'wporg' ),
     387                            'http://drupalsecurityreport.org/'
     388                        );
     389                    ?></p>
     390                    <h3><?php _e( 'Additional Reading', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
    202391                    <ul>
    203                         <li>WordPress News <a href="https://wordpress.org/news/">https://wordpress.org/news/</a></li>
    204                         <li>WordPress Security releases <a href="https://wordpress.org/news/category/security/">https://wordpress.org/news/category/security/</a></li>
    205                         <li>WordPress Developer Resources <a href="https://developer.wordpress.org/">https://developer.wordpress.org/</a></li>
     392                        <li><?php
     393                            printf(
     394                                /* translators: %s: Link to News Blog including the <a> tags. */
     395                                __( 'WordPress News %s', 'wporg' ),
     396                                '<a href="https://wordpress.org/news/">https://wordpress.org/news/</a>'
     397                            );
     398                        ?></li>
     399                        <li><?php
     400                            printf(
     401                                /* translators: %s: Link to News Blog Security Release Archive including the <a> tags. */
     402                                __( 'WordPress Security releases %s', 'wporg' ),
     403                                '<a href="https://wordpress.org/news/category/security/">https://wordpress.org/news/category/security/</a>'
     404                            );
     405                        ?></li>
     406                        <li><?php
     407                            printf(
     408                                /* translators: %s: Link to Developer.WordPress.org including the <a> tags. */
     409                                __( 'WordPress Developer Resources %s', 'wporg' ),
     410                                '<a href="https://developer.wordpress.org/">https://developer.wordpress.org/</a>'
     411                            );
     412                        ?></li>
    206413                    </ul>
    207414
    208415                    <hr />
    209416
    210                     <p><em>Authored by </em>Sara Rosso </p>
    211 
    212                     <p><em>Contributions from</em> Barry Abrahamson, Michael Adams, Jon Cave, Helen Hou-Sand&iacute;, Dion Hulse, Mo Jangda, Paul Maiorana</p>
    213 
    214                     <p><em>Version 1.0 March 2015</em></p>
     417                    <p><?php _e( '<em>Authored by</em> Sara Rosso', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     418
     419                    <p><?php _e( '<em>Contributions from</em> Barry Abrahamson, Michael Adams, Jon Cave, Helen Hou-Sand&iacute;, Dion Hulse, Mo Jangda, Paul Maiorana', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
     420
     421                    <p><?php _e( '<em>Version 1.0 March 2015</em>', 'wporg' ); ?></p>
    215422
    216423                    <hr />
    217424
    218                     <h3>Footnotes</h3>
     425                    <h3><?php _e( 'Footnotes', 'wporg' ); ?></h3>
    219426                    <ul>
    220427                        <li id='footnote1'><a href="#ref1">[1]</a> <a href="http://w3techs.com/">http://w3techs.com/</a>, as of March 2017</li>
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